The Executive Board of the United Nations’ Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) assumes full responsibility for its administration. Their remit is to uphold the environmental integrity of the CDM whilst ensuring the processes remains efficient and effective so projects can deliver the emission reductions.
Since climate policy is a relatively immature, fast moving arena, the Executive Board (EB) needs to keep up and alter its actions accordingly. In December 2009, the UN’s climate change body provided the EB with orders to reform the CDM; guaranteeing its credibility and maximising its generation of emission reductions. Just last week, the 54th meeting of the EB took place, but has progress been made in reforming the CDM?
EB and flow
Led by chair, Clifford Mahlung (see previous post), the recent meeting of the EB was a busy affair. Mahlung was charged with overhauling the CDM in what could be viewed as the most significant of its existence.
With the end of the Kyoto Protocol at the end of 2012, the supportive framework on which the CDM is based ceases to legally exist as we know it. The ongoing UNFCCC negotiations are quite literally paving the way to a new internationally binding agreement – including the extension of the flexible mechanisms, where the CDM fits in.
Until then however, the EB has to make do with what it has available: a project-based mechanism with the ability to potentially deliver almost one billion tonnes of carbon reductions by the end of 2012. But the CDM may be capable of more as it is currently plagued with teething problems. If it was made a simpler, cheaper and ultimately more efficient process, Mahlung could see vast improvements in the output from the CDM.
Positively, the EB managed to adopt new procedures for project registration and issuance of Certified Emission Reductions (the currency of the CDM where one CER equates to a one tonne reduction in carbon). Essentially, these changes would help streamline regulatory processes and, in return, allow for an improvement of the timescales involved for a project to issue CERs.
One of the key measures for checking if a project meets the criteria set out by the EB is known as additionality. Essentially, for a project to be registered under the CDM, it needs to prove that it could not go ahead without the income generated from CERs.
Regardless of the physical size of a project, each has to undergo the same criteria testing. Small-scale projects, usually micro-level renewables, have usually suffered because the timings and costs involved can cripple a project. In an effort to mitigate this barrier, the EB has decided that these projects will automatically pass additionality testing, subject to certain factors: geographical (remote locations) and beneficiaries (community not connected to an electricity grid).
Secondly, with regards to the costs involved, the EB is considering a loan system to help poorer countries to adopt projects more easily. The money will originate from interest accrued on the CDM’s reserve funds, currently in the millions of dollars.
It is hoped that these changes will kick start a range of reforms which will extend the scope of the CDM to regions that are currently not able to take advantage of the CDM, such as sub-Saharan Africa (see previous post), and increase the number of registered/issuing projects.
In a recent keynote address, the incoming head of the UNFCCC Christiana Figueres, made it clear that the EB was no longer the only blockade to CDM productivity. Instead, Figueres placed emphasis on the auditors of the CDM who are required to validate and verify the projects and emission reductions respectively.
With the EB announcing that it will carry out an additional management restructure and hire 28 people for the secretariat to deal with the CDM, the auditors may need to undertake some similar efficiency improvements if they are to take advantage of a new wave of projects.
Put simply, some progress of reforming the CDM has been made. However, it is far from over. The EB has a lot of work still to do if it is to overhaul the CDM and relive the heights of the expectations when it was first conceived.